Economy - Energy - Environment Simulation: Beyond the Kyoto Protocol
دانلود:شبیه سازی محیطی-انرژی و اقتصادی
The volume is based on a policy simulation model linking sixty countries and regions at a detailed industrial level, covering 99.5% of the world's economic activities. Country models are linked by trade matrices that explicitly describe annual trade flow among world regions. Energy demand and supply is explained in response to changing prices reflecting emission trading and other market-oriented policy instruments. The impact on global environment is gauged through CO2 emission. Simulation results to 2010 with an explicit description of economy-energy-environment feedback under different scenarios serve as an open platform for policy debate. Comparisons with results from other research works are provided, together with methodological comparisons. An annotated bibliography is also included.
Ecoregion-Based Design for Sustainability
Number Of Pages: 240
Publication Date: 2002-07-02
Sales Rank: 1105619
ISBN / ASIN: 0387954309
This richly illustrated volume completes Robert G. Bailey's celebrated study of ecoregions, begun in the landmark Ecosystem Geography (1996) and further articulated in Ecoregions (1998). In this third installment, the author expands his system for defining large-scale ecological zones to encompass principles of land management, regional planning, and design. In an engaging, nontechnical discussion, he shows how larger patterns and processes that characterize a region--its climate, topography, soils, vegetation, fauna, and human culture--provide essential keys to the sustainability of ecosystems. Ecoregion-Based Design for Sustainability will be welcomed by land and resource managers, landscape architects and urban planners, ecologists, students, and anyone interested in ecology-based design. "Bob Bailey [is] the man behind the ecosystem mapping of the world." -Lingua Franca Reviews of Ecoregions: "The book provides easy access to the geographic distribution, characteristics, and processes operating behind every major ecosystem in the world." -Geoscience Canada "Ecoregions offers an invaluable source of description, interpretation and analysis of global patterns of ecosystem distribution and successfully provides the reader with a means of making sense of these patterns." -Geography Robert G. Bailey is a geographer with the United States Forest Service in Fort Collins, Colorado. Formerly the leader of the agency's Ecosystem Management Analysis Center, he is currently in charge of ecoregion studies at the Inventory and Monitoring Institute.
The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere
دانلود کتاب: تقسیم بندی اکولوژیکی خاک کره
Recent studies have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the earth's ecosystem. This abundantly illustrated book provides a fundamental introduction to the ecological zones of the geosphere. Nine terrestrial ecozones have been distinguished and described in individual chapters with respect to: distribution, climate, relief/hydrology, soil vegetation/animal lifeand land use. The first chapter provides the reader with a general introduction to each subject area. The second edition is a competely revised and updated version. A large number of new Anglo-American ecological studies are included. The book also includes more than 70 new figures and tables and detailed maps on global agricultural regions and soil classification. Another new feature is the discussion of the correlation between northern ecosystems and the carbon dioxide balance in the global atmosphere.
Employment Deconcentration in European Metropolitan Areas: Market Forces versus Planning Regulations (GeoJournal Library)
Encyclopedia of Coastal Science
دانلود کتاب:دایره المعارف علوم ساحلی
"I know of no similar work (in scope, content and orientation). That is why we are all waiting so anxiously for this volume to be completed. Its perspective is unique."
Charles Finkel, Editor to the "Journal of Coastal Research"
"The contents and approach are interdisciplinary and,
under a single cover, one finds subjects normally scattered throughout
"The topics cover a broad spectrum, so does the geographic range of the contributors. besides geomorphologists, biologists, ecologists, engineers, geographers, geologists, oceanographers and technologists will find information related to their respective fields . Inclusion of appendices is very useful. The illustrated glossary of geomorphology will prove very useful for many of us ."
Roger H. Charlier, Journal of Coastal Research, Volume 21, Number 4, Page 866, West Palm Beach, Florida, July 2005.
"It is an excellent work that should be included in any carefully selected list of best science reference books of the year."...."The editor has made a considerable effort to improve on Beaches. In both editions, the contributors' list is notable for having authors from all over the world, and the entries are about the same length, from a long paragraph to several pages."...."Summing Up: Highly recommended. For reference collections in university libraries and for other libraries located in coastal areas."
M.L. Larsgaard, Choice, Volume 43, Issue 6, Page 989, Middletown, February 2006
"This volume is a comprehensive collection of articles covering all aspects of the subject: social and economic, engineering, coastal processes, habitats, erosion, geological features, research and observation." ... "As with similar works reviewed, I chose to read articles on familiar topics to see if they covered the expected, and some on unfamiliar topics to see if they could be readily understood. The book passed both tests, but the style is denser and more fact-filled than most of the encyclopedias I have reviewed."
John Goodier, Reference Reviews, Volume 20, Number 2, 2006, pages 35-36
Maurice Schwartz, Editor of the much acclaimed Encyclopedia of Beaches and Coastal Environments (Hutchinson Ross, 1982) has now brought forth a new volume with a fresh interdisciplinary approach that includes geomorphology, ecology, engineering, technology, oceanography, and human activities as they relate to coasts. Within its covers the Encyclopedia of Coastal Science includes many aspects of the coastal sciences that are only to be found scattered among scientific literature.
Encyclopedia of Soil Science
دانلود کتاب:دایره المعارف خاک شناسی
Soils long have been taken for granted being so commonplace and lacking often striking features. However, soil is one of the most complex media on Earth, vital for the biogeosphere and human civilization. With increased usage of soil for world food production, building materials, waste repositories, etc awareness has grown for the need of better global understanding of soil and its processes.
The Encyclopedia of Soil Science provides a comprehensive, alphabetical treatment of basic soil science in a single volume. It constitutes a wide ranging and authoritative collection of about 160 academic articles covering the salient aspects of soil physics, chemistry, biology, fertility, technology, genesis, morphology, classification and geomorphology.
The longer articles by leading authorities from around the world are being supplemented by ca 430 definitions of common terms in soil sciences. It should be emphasized though that the volume is not a dictionary but represents a compendium of knowledge.
Encyclopedia of World Climatology
دانلود کتاب:دایره المعارف آب و هوا شناسی
The past 20 years has witnessed unprecedented advances in climatology. Regional climates are more fully understood by relating them to distant atmospheric events through the study of teleconnections and synoptic climatology. Human responses to climate, at the individual, national and global levels, are explored from a science and social science perspective. Examination of recent events, from global warming to advances in satellite and radar climatology, provides keys to current understanding. Similarly, such articles as microclimatology and urban climates provide insights into the scales of climate.
John E. Oliver is Professor Emeritus at Indiana State University. He holds a B.Sc. from London University, and an MA and Ph.D from Columbia University. He taught at Columbia University and then at Indiana State where he was formerly Chair of the Geography-Geology Department, and Associate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences. He has written many books and journal articles in Climatology, Applied Climatology and Physical Geography. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.
دانلود کتاب:اثرات محیط زیست بر روی غدد درون ریز
Number Of Pages: 223
Publication Date: 2001-11-28
Sales Rank: 2280012
ISBN / ASIN: 3540663061
The field of endocrine disruption or endocrine active compounds (EACs), which is just emerging and still controversial, is comprehensively covered by leading experts in Volume 3, Subvolumes L (the present volume, Part I) and M (Part II). The major classes of endocrine active chemicals are discussed, as well as methods for their detection and their association with health disturbances in humans and wildlife. The etiology of several of the human diseases associated with endocrine disruptors, e.g. breast and prostate cancer, decreased fertility and malformations, is still poorly understood, and the current state of knowledge is presented. Since hormonally active agents appear to have the potential of both adverse and beneficial effects, the evidence of health benefits associated with endocrine active compounds in humans is also presented. Basic chapters on the mode of action of EACs and on the etiology of the associated diseases facilitate the understanding of this complex subject for non-medical readers.
Energy and Environment
دانلود کتاب: انرژی و محیط زیست
Springer; 1 edition
Paperback: 282 pages
Data: April 20, 2005
Description: ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT is a volume on energy and environmental modeling that describes a broad variety of modeling methodologies, embodied in models of varying scopes and philosophies, ranging from top-down integrated assessment models to bottom-up partial equilibrium models, to hybrid models. Integrated into the discussion and examination are chapters covering:
The Sustainability of Economic Growth by Cabo, Martín-Herrán & Martínez-García; Abatement Scenarios in the Swiss Housing Sector by L. Drouet et al; Support and Planning for Off-Site Emergency Management, by Geldermann et al; Hybrid Energy-Economy Models, by Jaccard; The World-MARKAL Model and Its Application, by Kanudia et al; Methodology for Evaluating a Market of Tradable CO2-Permits, by Kunsch and Springael; MERGE A Model for Global Climate Change, by Manne and Richels; A Linear Programming Model for Capacity Expansion in an Autonomous Power Generation System, by Mavrotas and Diakoulaki; Transport and Climate Policy Modeling in the Transport Sector, by Paltsev et al; Analysis of Ontario Electricity Capacity Requirements and Emissions, by Pineau and Schott; Environmental Damage in Energy / Environmental Policy Evaluation, by Van Regemorter.
دانلود کتاب:شیمی محیط زیست
Environmental chemistry is a new, fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. This book describes the state-of-the-art advances regarding the pollution of water, soils, atmosphere, food and living organisms by toxic metals, fossil fuels, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Furthermore, the eco-toxicology section presents novel bio-assays to assess the toxicity of various pollutants such as dioxins and endocrine disrupters within complex media. The green chemistry section highlights novel chemical reactions based upon environmentally friendly conditions. The analytical chemistry section describes very sensitive methods which trace the fate of pollutants in complex ecosystems.
دانلود کتاب: زمین شناسی زیست محیطی
This handbook describes a broad spectrum of methods in the fields of remote sensing, geophysics, geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, and microbiology designed to investigate landfill, mining and industrial sites. The descriptions provide information about the principle of the methods, applications, fundamentals, instruments, survey practice, processing and interpretation of the data, quality assurance, personnel, equipment, time needed, examples, as well as references and sources for further reading. Furthermore, this handbook deals with the stepwise procedure for investigating sites and common problems faced in efficient implementation of field operations. It can be used as a practical guide for training students, as well as to illustrate the advantages of interdisciplinary site investigations to decision-makers faced with their own environmental investigations.
دانلود کتاب:مدل سازی محیط زیست
The book has two aims: to introduce basic
concepts of environmental modeling and to facilitate the application of the
concepts using modern numerical tools such as MATLAB. It is targeted at all
natural scientists dealing with the environment: process and chemical engineers,
physicists, chemists, biologists, biochemists, hydrogeologists, geochemists and
MATLAB was chosen as the major computer tool for modeling, firstly because it is unique in it's capabilities, and secondly because it is available in most academic institutions, in all universities and in the research departments of many companies.
Environmental Photochemistry Part II
دانلود کتاب: فتوشیمی محیط زیست
Photochemical reactions play a major role in the environment including a wide range of reactions in the atmosphere, natural waters, soil and living organisms. This new volume on Environmental Photochemistry up-dates the previous edition with chapters on basic aspects including concepts of photochemical transformations and mechanistic photochemical processes in the atmosphere and water. In addition a range of applications are also detailed such as advanced photochemical oxidation processes for water and air treatment as well as applications of photocatalysis for surface treatment and nuclear fuel reprocessing. The new edition provides a critical up to date overview of the most important research in the field of environmental photochemistry.
Presents the state of the art of photochemical mechanisms & processes of environmental relevance. Includes new data on the sunlight spectrum & latest techniques for the analysis of short-life reactive species. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
Environmental Role of Wetlands in Headwaters
دانلود کتاب:نقش محیط زیست در زمین های مرطوب واقع در سرچشمه
Author: Josef Krecek, Martin
Publisher: Springer (April 19, 2006)
Publication Date: 2006-03-01
Number Of Pages: 368
Internationally, the wetlands of headwater and upland regions provide many valuable environmental services. They influence flood flows, sediment loads and aquifer recharge; biochemical water qualities and biodiversity. They affect the livelihoods of many communities providing water, peat, timber, grazing, crops and, locally, aesthetic, cultural, recreational, nature conservation and educational benefits. Previously, many of these lands were valued only for their capacity to be converted to other
Environmental Stratified Flows
دانلود کتاب:جریانهای لایه ای شکل در محیط زیست
The dynamics of flows in density-stratified fluids are an important topic for scientific enquiry. Flows arise in many contexts, ranging from industrial settings to the oceanic and atmospheric environments. Both the ocean and atmosphere are characterized by the basic vertical density stratification, and this feature can affect the dynamics on all scales ranging from the micro-scale to the planetary scale. This volume provides a state-of-the-art account of stratified flows as they are relevant to the ocean and atmosphere, with a primary focus on meso-scale phenomena; that is, phenomena whose time and space scales are such that the density stratification is a dominant effect, so that frictional and diffusive effects on the one hand and the effects of the earth's rotation on the other, can be regarded as of less importance.
Environmental Stratified Flows is essential to researchers in the field of oceanography, coastal and marine engineering, and environmental fluid dynamics.
Environmental UV Radiation: Impact on Ecosystems and Human Health and Predictive Models: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Environmental ... IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences) (Paperback)
دانلود کتاب:واپاشی اشعه ماوراء بنفش در محیط زیست
This publication originates from
the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Environmental Radiation: Impact on
Ecosystems and Human Health and Predictive Models, held in Pisa, Italy, in June
2001. The book offers not only basic information on the action mechanisms of UV
radiation on ecosystems and various biological systems, but also a picture of
the possible scenarios of the long-term global increase of environmental UV
radiation, with emphasis on the research aspects aimed at the proper
quantitative assessment of risk factors and the formulation of reliable
predictive models. The purpose of the authors is to present a critical
discussion on how changes in UV radiation will affect ecosystems and the
biological processes needed to sustain life on Earth and to provide useful hints
for future actions of governmental and international agencies, as well as
non-governmental organizations. The book is structured in four sections: the
first one is devoted to a general overview of the consequences of ozone
depletion and to the basic concepts of radiation measurements and monitoring;
the other three sections are devoted to the effects on plants, aquatic
ecosystems and human
Eutrophication Management and Ecotoxicology
دانلود کتاب:مدیریت انباشتگی آبهای خوراکی
This book aims to bridge the gap between ecotoxicology and limnology. The intended readers of the book are water managers, policy makers with a scientific background as well as researchers/advisors in the area of water management. The book provides an ecotoxicological perspective on lake management and describes eutrophication of shallow, temperate lakes. It surveys the influence of toxic substances (e.g., agricultural pesticides) on the aquatic ecosystem, especially the relation between algae and daphnids. The message of the book is that nutrients such as phosphorus are not the only important factor in explaining and managing eutrophication: toxic disturbance of to-down control is also an important factor to be considered. The results of extensive studies and experiments (some unpublished) on lake eutrophication are presented in this book.
Evaporites: Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons
دانلود کتاب:تبخیری ها
Excavations and Foundations in Soft Soils
دانلود کتاب:حفاری در خاکهای نرم
The book reviews the experiences with, as well as recent developments and research results on excavations and foundations in and on soft soil deposits. Geotechnical design and execution of civil engineering structures on very soft soils are usually associated with substantial difficulties. The aim of the authors is to give the readers an overview of the state of the art of material properties of soft soils and their application in excavations, different types of foundations and stabilization methods. The authors emphasize, however, that an underground with soft soil layer should not a priori be classified as extremely difficult and highly cost intensive. By making use of advance knowledge in soft soil engineering so far as available in the field of geotechnical engineering, it is possible to attain a technically safe and economically justifiable solution for a particular construction project. The book is expected to contribute much in this regard. The book is intended to serve practising as well as research engineers in the field of geotechnical engineering, moreover civil and structural engineers and advanced students may also find it a useful reference work
Exercises in Environmental Physics
دانلود کتاب: کاربرد فیزیک در محیط زیست
The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment
دانلود کتاب:وضعیت ماندگاری آلودگی ارگانیکی در محیط زیست
Number Of Pages: 473
Publication Date: 2007-11-29
ISBN / ASIN: 1402066406
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds of natural or anthropogenic origin that resist photolytic, chemical and biological degradation. They are characterized by low water solubility and high lipid solubility, resulting in bioaccumulation in fatty tissues of living organisms. These properties of unusual high persistence and semi-volatility, coupled with other characteristics, have resulted in the presence of POPs all over the world, even in regions where they have never been used. With the evidence of long-range transport of these substances to regions, the international community has now, at several occasions called for urgent global actions to reduce and eliminate releases of these chemicals. Many countries have already banned or severely restricted the production and use of the twelve POPs in recent decades. Yet they remain a serious problem around the world. Because these chemicals have the ability to travel long distances from their original sources, relying on national-level action alone is ultimately a futile effort.
This book employs a science-based approach to identify and take action against POPs, and additionally, provides access to technical information on POPs. The book will be an overview of the existing POP monitoring activities and programs.
Flow and Transport Processes with Complex Obstructions
دانلود کتاب:در رابطه با محیط زیست
Number Of Pages: 428
Publication Date: 2006-10-20
ISBN / ASIN: 1402053835
Fractal Behaviour of the Earth System
دانلود کتاب: رفتار فراکتالی سیستمهای زمین شناسی
Title: Fractal Behaviour of the Earth System
Author: V.P. Dimri (Editor)
Publisher: Springer; 1 edition (November 28, 2005)
The book fills a gap in the steadily expanding field of applying fractals to the earth science system. In this book the concept of fractal-scaling is applied to a variety of geophysical problems, illustrating what scaling laws really tell us and how they can used to solve various geophysical problems. Keeping in mind the broad range of readers interested in understanding earth’s nonlinear dynamics, the authors address diverse recent advances related to fractals and scaling. These include broad applications of fractal theory in potential field methods, electrical and electromagnetic methods, geothermics and seismology, written by a panel of internationally known earth scientists from around the globe.
دانلود کتاب:جریانهای اکسیژن
The state of the art on fuel oxygenates, and in particular of MTBE in groundwater, is presented. Historically, oxygenates like MTBE were developed in the 1970s as octane enhancers to replace toxic additives like lead, which were phased out of gasoline. The presence of oxygenates in gasoline promotes cleaner fuel combustion within the engine, boosts fuel octane values and reduces vehicle emissions.
Another relevant oxygenate is ethyl-tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), which has increasingly replaced MTBE. Ethanol is by far the most commonly used alcohol oxygenate and bio-ethanol in particular is being increasingly used as a replacement for other fuel oxygenates.
Today the discussion on the increase on corn production to produce bio-ethanol in order to reduce our dependency on oil is in the press. As a consequence corn cultivation started to increase in Europe, the US and Brazil with subsidiary plans from the governments up to 0.4 Euros/liter of biethanol produced.
Other alcohols that can be used as fuel oxygenates are methanol and tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is, in addition, the main degradation product of MTBE and a potential impurity from the MTBE manufacturing process.
This book deals mainly with the problems associated with the contamination of groundwater by MTBE and TBA, but ETBE is also considered. The book, written by recognized specialists in the field, is organized in sections covering state-of-the-art analytical methods, including specific isotopic analysis, occurrence in the environment, transport and degradation processes, treatment technologies and human health risks. It offers a unique opportunity not only for scientists who want to get more comprehensive information on this subject but also for policy makers and stakeholders that need to manage real-world environmental problems associated with fuel oxygenate contamination of our groundwater resources.